Redefining the sacral autonomic outflow

In November 2016,  Espinosa-Medina and others entitled “The sacral autonomic outflow is sympathetic”. This single paper has led at least some Universities to immediately redefine the system when teaching their undergraduates, whereas other have taken a more cautious approach awaiting further information. It seems reasonable that ISAN should take a position on this, one way or another. So, ISAN hereby proposes to debate the notion that:

 
“That the autonomic outflow of the sacral cord should be reclassified as sympathetic”
 
Following the outcome of this debate, ISAN will then fomally propose one of the following motions to its members:
-          That the autonomic outflow of the sacral cord should remain classified as parasympathetic
-          That the autonomic outflow of the sacral cord should be considered neither sympathetic nor parasympathetic
-          That the autonomic outflow of the sacral cord should be classified as sympathetic

Key Papers

For:

Against:

The debate and discussion

During Symposium 11, on the 2nd day (Thursday) of ISAN 2017, this issued was debated and discussed. Following this discussion, those attending recommended that the position of ISAN should be:

"That the autonomic outflow of the sacral cord should remain classified as parasympathetic"

This view was endorsed during the ISAN AGM on the 1st September 2017.

After the debate

Other relevant papers appearing after the debate include:

This debate was funded, in part, by the The Physiological Society.